Recent news reports about class action lawsuits against Uber and Lyft provide an opportunity for revisiting the standards that courts and enforcement agencies use to determine whether an employment relationship exists between the provider of labor and the recipient of the benefits of the labor. Uber is the subject of a lawsuit entitled O’Conner v. Uber Technologies, Inc., currently pending in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, where it is being heard by Judge Vince Chhabria, under Case No. 13-CV-03826-EMC. The Lyft case is in the same district, where it is being heard by Judge Edward Chen — Cotter v. Lyft, Inc., under Case No. 13-CV-04065-VC.
In both cases, the judges denied summary judgment motions by the defendants, on the grounds that there were triable issues as to whether the companies were employers of their drivers, The question to be decided at trial in each case is whether the drivers are independent contractors or employees entitled to the protections of the wage and hour laws. The answer turns on the amount of control that each company exercises over the manner and means by which the drivers provide services.
Under the venerable case of S.G. Borello & Sons, Inc. v. Dep’t of Indus., 48 Cal. 3d 341 (1989), California law (which applies in both cases) presumes that anyone who provides services to another is an employee. The burden is on the presumptive employer to show otherwise by analyzing the following factors: (1) the right to control the work, (2) the alleged employee’s opportunity for profit or loss depending on his managerial skill, (3) the alleged employee’s investment in equipment or materials required for his task, or his employment of helpers, (4) whether the service rendered requires a special skill, (5) the degree of permanence of the working relationship, and (6) whether the service rendered is an integral part of the alleged employer’s business. For a practical, question and answer approach to applying the California standard, see the Employment Development Department’s Employment Determination Guide.
The federal standard under the Fair Labor Standards Act is similar. For example, in Bonnette v. California Health & Welfare Agency, 704 F.2d 1465, 1470 (9th Cir. 1983), the Ninth Circuit stated that the determination must be based on the economic realities of the situation, including whether the alleged employer (1) had the power to hire and fire the employees, (2) supervised and controlled employee work schedules or conditions of employment, (3) determined the rate and method of payment, and (4) maintained employment records.
Cases involving taxi drivers may provide some guidance as to how the Uber and Lyft cases will ultimately turn out. In Yellow Cab Cooperative v. Workers’ Compensation Appeals Bd., 226 Cal.App,3d 1288 (1991), the California Court of Appeal ruled that a cab driver was an employee of Yellow Cab for purposes of workers compensation. Although the driver provided services under a written lease with Yellow Cab and was responsible for his own expenses, Yellow Cab exercised substantial control over the manner and means by which the driver provided the services. It marketed the service and had dispatchers who directed the drivers to calls. It instructed drivers on matters of behavior toward the public, personal appearance, and keeping their cabs clean. The company could require drivers to return to the yard. It barred them from working for other companies.
By contrast, in Yellow Taxi Co. v. NLRB, 721 F.2d 366 (D.C. Cir. 1983), a federal court of appeals ruled that taxis drivers were not employees under the National Labor Relations Act. There the company’s written lease provided that the driver paid a fixed rental, regardless of his or her earnings on a particular day, and retained all the fares collected without having to account to the company in any way. That created a “strong inference” that the company did not control the manner and means of providing services.
Note that the Fair Labor Standards Act exempts drivers for “an employer engaged in the business of operating taxicabs” from the overtime rules (although not from the minimum wage requirement). See 29 U.S.C. section 213(b)(17).
For news reports on the denial of summary judgment motions in the Uber and Lyft lawsuits, see Juries To Decide Landmark Cases Against Uber and Lyft in Forbes, Judges back drivers in lawsuits against Uber, others in The Boston Globe, Judges Rule Lawsuits Over Lyft, Uber Drivers Should Proceed in The Wall Street Journal, and Uber and Lyft drivers’ class-action lawsuits will go to jury trials in The Los Angeles Times.